Saudi-Chinese relations have a long history of harmony and harmony in visions and joint work in order to find what the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and China seek in terms of achieving comprehensive and sustainable development, as the roots of the solid relations between the two countries extend for more than 75 years, all the way to their official form in 1990 When the two countries agreed to exchange ambassadors, establish full diplomatic relations, and close and fruitful cooperation in various fields, for the benefit and good of the peoples of the two friendly countries.
The history of Saudi-Chinese friendship has witnessed great distinction, which had a great impact on strengthening cooperation bonds, enhancing mutual understanding, raising the rate of trade exchange and pumping various investments between the two countries, through the signing of many agreements and memoranda of understanding at various political, economic, developmental, industrial, commercial and cultural levels, etc. It relates to the energy and security sectors, as follows:
In 1990, the two countries agreed to establish full diplomatic relations and exchange ambassadors.
In 1999, a radio and television cooperation agreement was signed between the Saudi Ministry of Information and the General Authority for Radio, Film and Television of China, as well as an agreement for exchanging news between the news agencies of the two countries, “SPA” and “Xinhua”.
In 2000, an agreement was signed in the educational and training fields, and a memorandum of understanding in the aviation field.
In 2001, two draft agreements in agricultural cooperation and water resources were concluded, and a joint feasibility study was conducted for the “Fujian” integrated petroleum and petrochemical project in China.
In 2002, 3 cooperation agreements were signed in the fields of water resources, education and culture.
The year 2003 witnessed a remarkable development in the bilateral relations between the Kingdom and China, with the announcement of the establishment of the “Saudi-Chinese Business Council”, to replace the Saudi-Chinese Friendship Association, and a cooperation agreement was signed between the Riyadh Exhibitions Company Ltd. and the “China Orient” Company for Exhibitions and Chinese Consulting.
In 2004, a final bilateral agreement was signed on the offers of goods and services provided by the Kingdom, as part of its efforts to join the World Trade Organization, the signing of a memorandum of understanding for political consultation between the foreign ministries of the two countries, and a new agreement with the Chinese Dragon Company to transport Saudi shipments from Hong Kong to some Chinese cities, in addition to the Chinese company Sinopec’s participation with Aramco in exploring and developing non-associated gas resources in the northern Empty Quarter.
In 2005, the signing of an agricultural cooperation agreement, a protocol on cooperation in the oil, natural gas and mining sector, and the signing of the minutes of the third session of the Sino-Saudi Joint Committee for Economic, Commercial, Investment and Technical Cooperation, an agreement to avoid double taxation on revenues and property and prevent tax evasion, and a loan agreement that will be used. To develop the infrastructure of “Exo” city in China’s Xinjiang region, and an agreement for cooperation in the field of professional training.
The Saudi-Chinese relations between 2006 AD until early 2016 were characterized by continuous development, the desire of the Saudi and Chinese sides to strengthen strategic partnerships, and to move forward towards economic integration that ensures keeping pace with developments imposed by the changes of the modern era in its promising sectors, and achieving common interests and mutual benefit. This brings prosperity and development to the economies of the two countries and their international standing.
In 2006, an agreement on security cooperation between the two countries was signed, a contract for defense systems was signed, a memorandum of cooperation in the health fields was signed, and a memorandum of understanding on comprehensive trade cooperation between Saudi Aramco and Chinese Sinopec was signed.
In 2007, two memoranda of understanding were signed in the field of engineering projects and civil aviation, and joint training agreements were signed to qualify promising national cadres of Saudi youth.
In 2008, the signing of an agreement between the Saudi “SABIC” company and a Chinese company to build a joint petrochemical complex in China, and the signing of the joint statement to enhance cooperation and strategic relations between the Kingdom and China.
In 2010, an agreement was signed between the King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology and its counterpart in the Chinese Academy, and SABIC Tianjin announced financing agreements worth $1.8 billion.
In 2012, the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Saudi company SABIC and the Chinese “Sinopec” to establish a factory for the production of “polycarbonate” in the Chinese region of Tianjin, and the signing of a cooperation agreement for the peaceful use of nuclear energy between the governments of the Kingdom and China, and the signing of a work program between the King Abdulaziz Library Public and Peking University.
In 2014, the first agreement was concluded on a cooperation program between the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in the Kingdom and the Public Authority for Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine in China, and the second agreement was concluded in the form of a memorandum of understanding between the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology in the Kingdom and the Chinese National Space Administration for cooperation in science And space technologies, and the third agreement was concluded in the form of a memorandum of understanding regarding the contribution of the Saudi Fund for Development in the project to establish the new headquarters of Lioliang University in the Chinese province of Shaanxi, and the fourth agreement was concluded, which included cooperation in investment development between the General Investment Authority in the Kingdom and the Investment Development Authority of the Ministry Trade in China.
In early 2016, His Excellency Chinese President Chen Jinping visited the Kingdom, where the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz held a session of talks with his Excellency at Al-Yamamah Palace in Riyadh, during which the King affirmed the strength of the Saudi-Chinese relationship, and that it had witnessed a steady growth over the past 25 years, explaining that the two sides strive together for stability and the strengthening of peace and security in the world.
For his part, His Excellency the Chinese President affirmed the strengthening of the partnership between the two countries and the continuation of developing common friendly relations with the Kingdom, praising the measures taken by His Majesty King Salman to stimulate development in the Kingdom since he assumed the reins of power in the country.
During the Chinese President’s visit to Riyadh, 14 agreements and memoranda of understanding were signed between the governments of the Kingdom and China, including the memorandum for strengthening joint cooperation regarding the Silk Road Economic Belt, the Maritime Silk Road Initiative for the 21st Century, and cooperation in production capacity, signed on the Saudi side by His Royal Highness Prince Muhammad bin Salman Bin Abdulaziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Defense, Chairman of the Council for Economic Affairs and Development.
Numerous memoranda of understanding were also signed, including: “the field of science and technology, the field of satellite navigation, the industrial field, the field of renewable energy, the field of promoting the development of the information silk road for the sake of information connectivity between the two countries, cooperation to establish the nuclear reactor with high temperature and gas-cooled, and the field of research And development, setting up a mechanism for consultations on combating terrorism, strategic cooperation for the development of industrial investment and local content, and cooperation in the field of cultural heritage, as well as signing a framework agreement for strategic cooperation between Saudi Aramco and the Chinese National Petrochemical Company (Sinopec), and a loan agreement for the environmental development project for populated areas. With Hui nationality in Jintai District, Shaanxi Province, and a loan agreement in favor of the Wetland Protection Project and the Hewangi Lake Development in Anhui Province.
The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, His Excellency the Chinese President, also conferred the “King Abdulaziz Necklace”, which is the highest decoration in the Kingdom and is awarded to leaders and heads of state.
Saudi-Chinese relations witnessed a major turning point in the second half of 2016, as its dimensions were greatly enhanced and its bilateral index of the highest degrees of cooperation towards economic integration, after the visit of His Royal Highness Prince Muhammad bin Salman, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, to China on August 28 this year, based on the directives of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz, and in response to the invitation of the Chinese government, where His Highness met with Chinese President Chen Jinping and senior Chinese state officials, marking the beginning of a new era of friendship, bilateral trade, and bilateral cooperation in various fields. Domains.
The visit of the Crown Prince to China came at that time, as the Saudi and Chinese sides were keen to keep pace with the global economic movement and the changes and change it is witnessing, and the acceleration of the pace of development and progress, which pushed the two sides to move forward at an accelerated pace towards developing their strategic partnerships to cope with the requirements of the times, while achieving more Cooperation and mutual understanding at various levels for the benefit of the two friendly countries and peoples.
This important visit witnessed a bilateral trend from the Saudi and Chinese sides towards investing the available resources in both countries and agreeing on a common vision that would ensure strengthening their international standing and achieving their common interests, and this was embodied on the ground by signing an agreement to establish a high-level Saudi-Chinese joint committee, and a record The work of the first session of the committee, and the signing of 15 agreements and memoranda of understanding between the governments of the two countries, as follows:
- Signing a memorandum of understanding in the energy sector.
- Signing a memorandum of understanding in the field of oil storage.
- Signing a development loan agreement to contribute to financing a project to rebuild earthquake-affected areas in Lushan District, Sichuan Province.
- Signing a development loan agreement to contribute to financing the construction project of a number of vocational college buildings in Jiujiang City, Jianxi Province.
- Signing an executive program for the development of the Information Silk Road.
- Signing a Memorandum of Understanding agreement for cooperation in the field of housing.
- Signing a memorandum of understanding for cooperation in the field of mining.
- Signing a memorandum of understanding for cooperation between the Saudi Fund for Development and the Chinese Ministry of Commerce in the field of financing and guaranteeing exports, information exchange, and training.
- Signing a memorandum of understanding for cooperation in the field of water resources.
- Signing a timetable in a cooperation program between the Chinese General National Authority for Quality Supervision, Testing and Quarantine and the Saudi Ministry of Trade and Investment.
- Signing an executive program for a cultural cooperation agreement.
- Signing a program between the Chinese Standardization Administration and the Saudi Organization for Standardization, Metrology, and Quality.
- Signing of a Memorandum of Understanding agreement between the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology for cooperation in the field of science and technology.
- Signing a memorandum of cooperation in the field of translation and publishing literary and classic works.
- Signing a memorandum of understanding between the Construction Government and the Saudi Ministry of Housing regarding a project to establish a new city in the suburb of Asfar.
- This visit resulted in strategic cooperation between the Kingdom and China in the field of peaceful nuclear energy, and the sustainable settlement of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the Kingdom, through the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy with the Chinese National Nuclear Energy Corporation on building human capabilities in the field of uses. Peaceful nuclear technology; To develop Saudi human resources to serve the atomic energy programs in the Kingdom, including education and training in industries, activities, programs, and related projects.
The visit also witnessed Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s meeting with a group of officials of the most important Chinese companies, namely ZTE Corporation, Huawei, China Aluminum Corporation (Chalco), the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone (TEDA), and the China Construction and Communications Company (cccc), China Railway Construction Corporation, China Mining Corporation, China National Chemical Corporation (Chem China), POLY Corporation, NORINCO Corporation, CEIEC Corporation, AVIC Corporation (AVIC), CATIC Corporation (CATIC), Inc. CASIC, CPMIEC, and ALIT. His Highness, the Crown Prince, reviewed with these giant companies investment opportunities in the Kingdom, and ways to consolidate areas of partnership in accordance with Saudi Vision 2030, as well as existing and future companies’ projects in the Kingdom.
Saudi-Chinese relations entered a new phase of prosperity and comprehensive strategic partnership, with the visit of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz to China, on March 15, 2017 AD, which brought with it various means of comprehensive cooperation, common development, and mutual benefit in order to create a prosperous future for the Kingdom and China. Enhancing the international status of the two friendly countries, and achieving good and prosperity for their peoples.
King Salman’s visit to Beijing came as a steady development in the Kingdom’s relations with China, as His Majesty was keen to push relations towards the summit of economic integration and to provide them with more incentives for prosperity and comprehensive and sustainable development, in order to achieve common aspirations and open new horizons for joint action in various investment, commercial and industrial sectors. And technological, tourism and cultural, and in energy, mining, military, and security cooperation.
The visit was clearly marked by a common goal between the Saudi and Chinese leaders in raising the level of integration between the Kingdom’s Vision 2030 and the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative, to the point of ensuring the establishment of an Asian and global trade network, and the provision of a common infrastructure that provides easy access to the markets of Asia, Africa, and Europe, so that it depends on each route. Silk and the Kingdom’s strategic location linking these three markets.
His Majesty King Salman and His Excellency President Xi Jinping witnessed the signing of memoranda of understanding, cooperation, and programs between the governments of the Kingdom and China, which included: “a memorandum of understanding for the general framework for industrial investment opportunities and infrastructure, and a memorandum of understanding regarding financing and establishing container terminals and infrastructure for the multiple logistics center in Yanbu Industrial City. And a strategic cooperation agreement for investment in multiple projects, a memorandum of understanding for cooperation regarding the Kingdom’s participation in the China lunar exploration trip (Chang E-4), a partnership agreement for the manufacture of unmanned aircraft, a memorandum of understanding on a list of cooperation projects in production capacity, and the signing of a cooperation program in the two fields Trade and investment, a memorandum of cooperation in the educational field, the signing of a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in the regulatory affairs of nuclear safety for the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, the signing of an agreement to work on a feasibility study for gas-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactor projects in the Kingdom, a memorandum of understanding for cooperation in the field of uranium and thorium deposits, and an agreement Cooperation in the field of export credit guarantee, and the signing of an executive cooperation program in the field of media.
On the sidelines of King Salman’s visit to Beijing, the Saudi-Chinese Investment Forum was organized, which concluded with the signing of 21 investment agreements between the private sectors in the two countries, in the fields of energy, petrochemicals, investment, communications technology, and contracting.
The Saudi Aramco company signed a cooperation agreement with the Chinese company, NORINCO, in the areas of exploring strategic cooperation and investment opportunities in the field of refining, marketing, and petrochemicals, and another agreement was signed with AEROSUN in the field of exploring investment opportunities in the Kingdom. In the fields of engineering, design, and manufacture of pipes, and areas of research and development.
The Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu signed an agreement with the “Pan-Asia” Company (PAN-ASIA) to allocate a site for the Jazan Petrochemical Plant with an investment amounting to two billion dollars. The authority also signed two agreements with the Chinese company “Huawei” to establish an innovation center for smart city services and to establish a Huawei training center. In Yanbu Industrial City.
Saudi companies have signed agreements with Chinese companies in the fields of 3D construction, information technology, renewable energy, machine engineering, and other fields.
The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development signed a memorandum of understanding with the Chinese Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security for cooperation in the fields of labor and human resource development, exchanging information and experiences between the two ministries on labor and employment regulations, legislation and policies, and organizing training programs in the field of labor inspection and occupational health and safety, in addition to developing services Employment in the labor market and training and qualification of youth.
King Salman’s visit to China was not without cultural cooperation that extends back to long ages, as His Majesty and His Excellency the Chinese President Xi Jinping honored the ceremony of the Trade Roads Exhibition in the Arabian Peninsula: “The Masterpieces of the Antiquities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Through the Ages”, at the National Museum of China in The Chinese capital, Beijing, where ancient and rare artifacts were displayed representing the ancient history of the Arabian Peninsula, and introducing the civilization dimension of the Arabian Peninsula and the cultural heritage of the Kingdom, and covering the period that extends from the ancient Stone Age “a million years BC” from prehistoric times until the establishment of the Saudi state To the era of King Abdulaziz – may God have mercy on him – founder of the modern Saudi state.
Saudi-Chinese relations continued their steady development, and their wide strategic partnerships in various fields, with the visit of His Royal Highness Prince Mohammed bin Salman, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister, and Minister of Defense, to the Chinese capital, Beijing, on February 21, 2019, which came to document friendship bonds and complete the implementation of what It was previously agreed upon in terms of fruitful cooperation in various fields and deepening the partnership with new trade and investment agreements.
The visit of His Highness the Crown Prince witnessed the expansion of the horizons of cooperation between the Kingdom and China in the fields of investment, trade, industry, mining, health, and education to serve common interests in the sectors and strategic priority areas, which are led by technology projects, advanced technology, infrastructure, e-government applications and space, and the expansion of the base of bilateral investments in oil and gas. Renewable energy, electricity generation, and the peaceful uses of atomic energy, in a way that transfers the level of partnership relations between the two friendly countries to broader horizons, and achieves common comprehensive development for them.
On the sidelines of His Highness’ visit to Beijing, the Saudi-Chinese Investment Forum was organized, which culminated in the signing of 35 joint bilateral economic cooperation agreements between the Kingdom and China, with investments amounting to more than $ 28 billion, as well as the delivery of 4 licenses to Chinese companies specializing in a number of fields to work in the Kingdom. The presence of more than 1000 participants and visitors, including investors, capital, and those interested in economic affairs.
The various strategic partnerships that took place during the visit of the Crown Prince to Beijing were translated into the fact that the Kingdom is a pioneering investment power and a global economic destination, a reliable source to ensure oil supplies and the stability of its markets, and a hub connecting the three continents of Asia, Africa, and Europe, which made it a major target in the Chinese development plans to obtain greater facilities for investments. Saudi Arabia in the refining sector, refining, marketing, retail, and petrochemical products in the Chinese market, and cooperation in the fields of petrochemicals, mining, and infrastructure in the Kingdom.
The new Saudi and Chinese partnerships included many important agreements, including a cooperation agreement with the Chinese company Wyson for the production of petrochemicals from petroleum coke in the Kingdom, in cooperation with the Ministry of Energy and Industrial Clusters, valued at about $ 5.6 billion, and the signing of an agreement with the Shanxi Sunway Company to discuss opportunities for establishing a complex. For the manufacture of “butane Dawiol” and its derivatives and pharmaceutical industry materials in the Kingdom, with investments of $ 2.4 billion, and a cooperation agreement to implement the Pan-Asia project, the second phase, to increase the production of the first phase of the project of “thyrithalic acid” and “polyethylene terephthalate”, which will be manufactured in The Kingdom with an investment of 1.5 billion riyals, a cooperation agreement to attract direct manufacturing industries in Dammam’s third industrial city with an investment of one billion dollars, a memorandum of understanding with the Chinese Wang Kang Company to establish a high-quality ceramics factory in Yanbu and a promise of the North, with a value of 200 million dollars, and an agreement for cooperation in the areas of transformation Technology and smart solutions in industrial cities with a value of $ 600 million.
In addition, a cooperation agreement was signed in maritime transport between the Kingdom and China aimed at strengthening and developing the maritime transport industry between the two countries, facilitating and developing the traffic of commercial ships between them for the purposes of transporting passengers as well as commercial goods, in addition to encouraging trade exchange, consolidating friendship, technical cooperation and exchanging knowledge and experiences, In order to serve the alignment between Saudi Vision 2030 and the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative.